The most significant principle in cleaning is soil suspension. This involves separating soil from whatever needs to be cleaned so that it can be removed.
Four fundamentals which determine cleaning efficiency are:
To help remember these fundamentals use the acronym T.A.C.T.
The fundamentals of soil suspension are illustrated as a pie with each T.A.C.T. fundamental being of equal size.
The size of the overall pie is directly related to cleaning efficiency. In our pie chart, all 4 slices contribute equally for maximum cleaning efficiency.
However, in the real world:
For instance: If you decrease the temperature fundamental, you must compensate this imbalance by increasing any of the other three fundamentals (the amount of agitation, the amount of chemical action, or the length of time).
The reverse also holds true. If any one of the four fundamentals is increased, a decrease of another fundamental is needed to compensate for the imbalance.
All cleaning systems utilizing a "wet" cleaning process have some combination of the T.A.C.T. fundamentals of soil suspension.
To use a cold cleaning solution would require an increase in agitation, chemical action and or time, (the temperature pie slice has been decreased).
To use a cleaning solution without any agitation would require an increase in cleaning solution temperature, a stronger cleaning chemical and or more time, (the agitation pie slice has been decreased).
To use a water only cleaning solution would require an increase in cleaning solution temperature, more agitation and or more time to remove soil, (the chemical action pie slice has been decreased).
To minimize time to perform a cleaning task would require an increase in cleaning solution temperature, more agitation, and or a stronger cleaning product, (the time pie slice has been decreased).
To maximize the suspension of soil, each T.A.C.T. fundamental
needs to be increased as much as possible without incurring adverse
reactions or side effects.